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Tu-82

In February, 1948 Tupolev Design Bureau started developing experimental aircraft of front-line bomber class with swept wing and two RD-45F or VK-1 turbojet engines. The airplane was to reach near sonic speeds (0.9 - 0.95M). Work on the project was started on the initiative of the design bureau, and received Tu-82 ("82") designation.
Initially, the project represented a deep modernization of Tu-73 aircraft. Unlike the latter, Tu-82 had swept wing and tail. The power plant of the aircraft had two engines; the crew was reduced from four to three persons. Also, the designers refused from dorsal and ventral cannon turrets - they were replaced by a single tail turret.
Dimensions and takeoff weight of "82" aircraft turned out to be much less than those of "73". At the same time, a similar design optimization for installation of two VK-1 engines was carried out on "73" and "78" base projects that led to the creation of the production Tu-14T ("81T") torpedo-bomber for naval aviation. The initial preliminary design of "82" aircraft was prepared by the Bureau in March 1948.
Then, the project received official support, and the aircraft began to be regarded not only as an experimental one, but also as a base for creating transonic front-line bomber. In June 1948, the Council of Ministers issued a decree, which legitimized work on "82" aircraft.
It was supposed to build two prototypes. In June, 1948 the Design Bureau prepared a new preliminary design, different from the original one by changes in some elements of the airframe, armament and equipment composition.

Construction of the prototype aircraft with RD-45F engines was started in July, 1948. Next February, the aircraft was completed and passed for the factory tests. In the course of construction, four pairs of wing fences were installed on the wing of prototype aircraft "82".
In March, 1949 aircraft "82" performed its first flight piloted by the crew of test-pilot A.D. Perelet. Factory tests continued until June 1949. The report on factory flight tests indicated that the aircraft was stable and could be piloted by pilots of average skill.
A top speed of 931 km/h at an altitude of 4,000 m was recorded during the tests. The new wing has not surprised the designers – behavior of the airplane was much calmer in comparison to the flights of the first fighters with swept wing.
During the tests of aircraft "82", there had been an episode that went down in the history of domestic aircraft engineering. In the summer of 1949, preparation for the traditional air parade in Tushino was under way, in which aircraft "82" was to take part. During the final rehearsal few days before the parade, the plane, flying at low altitude over the Moscow River, got into the area of ascending air currents of varying intensity.
A later so-called "cyclic turbulence" occurred, with the corresponding off-design loads of aircraft structure that led to the destruction of the attachment of the left engine to the engine mount.
A.D. Perelet was injured – he hit his face on the dashboard, but managed to turn off the damaged engine, continued flying on one engine and landed the plane at the airfield of LII. This case required the introduction of new concept to the strength standards - "cyclic turbulence" - effect that emerges due to the passage of complex terrain, such as field-river-forest, at low altitude. After a series of tests, the methodology for calculating aircraft "cyclic turbulence" was implemented into practice of aircraft engineering.

Basic characteristics of the aircraft:

Wing span, m 17.81
Length of the fuselage, m 17.57
Height N/A
Wing area, m2 46.24
Engine type RD-45F
Engine thrust, kgf 2 x 2,270
Empty weight, kg 11,226
Normal take-off weight, kg 14,919
Overload takeoff weight, kg 18,339
Maximum speed, km/h 934
Cruise speed N/A
Service ceiling, m 11,400
Range, km 2,395
Take-off run, m 1,100
Crew, persons 3